Displaying items by tag: Food security
POSTER: This study hypothesized that use of genetic parameters from different studies to evaluate overall genetic and economic gains of livestock breeding programmes could over and under estimate response to selection. This is because genetic parameters are affected by data sample size, environmental conditions and evaluation models.
POSTER: Credit access is among key determinants to increase level of tea production and income of small scale-farmers in Rwanda and its demand has been increasing with the time. Accessed credit help farmers to meet costs of farm inputs such as fertilizers, seedlings and labour as well. Factors to access credit have been discussed in various studies, and despite the fact that credit seekers obtain credits only when they are eligible by complying with the requirements such as the interest rate to pay, tea farm size and collateral of the lending institutions.
Key among government strategies to promote efficient and participatory water management in Kenya is through empowering local communities to manage water resources through Water Resource Users’ Associations (WRUAs) which is a collective action initiative.
The increasing use of different sizes of agricultural machines have led to amplified levels of soil compaction. Knowledge on the dynamics of different soil properties as a result of wheel traffic is crucial for formulation and adoption of proper soil and water conservation methods for improved crop production with increasing population.
Cassava is grown mostly for its tubers while the leaves are considered a byproduct. Cassava leaves constitute a very significant source of dietary protein, minerals and vitamins. However, they contain antinutrients and cyanide, notably the linamarin, which pose the risk of intoxication to the consumers when the leaves are not processed properly.
In Sub Sahara Africa, food contamination continues to wreak havoc. In this region, ready-to-eat foods are majorly sold by street food vendors where hygiene becomes a major challenge given the inadequate supply of portable water. Large numbers of unlicensed vendors operating their businesses in hard to reach areas, mostly after-work hours, thwart the efforts by the public health inspectors to ensure safe food for the public.
Ready–To-Eat (RTE) meat products are consumed in the same state as it is sold without further preparation to ensure safety to the consumer. These foods normally include ingredients that may or may not be cooked and some are regarded as potentially hazardous therefore can support proliferation of food pathogens and should be kept at certain temperatures to reduce the growth of pathogens that may be present in the food.
This study aims to examine the effect of the one-acre model on maize productivity in Kimilili Sub-County, Kenya. One acre fund is a non-governmental organization operating in western Kenya offering comprehensive credit-in-kind bundle of seeds, fertilizer, training and market facilitation.
Green leafy vegetables’ self-provisioning is an informal means of vegetables production with the major part of it used for own-consumption. In Kenya, self-provisioning is taking place in both urban and peri-urban areas. However, the motives of engaging in this practice, and of the choice of commodities to focus in, are not clear. Existing studies have provided mixed reasons for engaging in self-provisioning such as; economic hardships, improving household food security, source of employment, cultural reasons or leisure/hobby.
Declining farm size as a result of continuing land fragmentation as population increases is a major policy concern in Sub-Saharan Africa in general and Kenya in particular. The government efforts to address land fragmentation in Kenya have been hampered by lack of adequate and reliable research-based information to guide policy formulation on land management and its impact on food security.
Cape gooseberry, Physalis peruviana, is a nutritionally important underutilized fruit with great therapeutic potential attributed to its rich macro and micronutrient content. It is laden with anti-inflammatory phytochemicals that contribute to its medicinal value as an antidiabetic, anticancer, and anti-hypertensive agent. P. peruviana is promoted for inclusion in human diets for a disease-free healthy life and general well-being.
Chia seed (Salvia hispanica) has been known for over 5,500 years and was used as a food for the Mayas and Aztec tribes. It is now fast gaining popularity worldwide due to the health benefits associated with it at a time where there is an increasing desire to change to healthier lifestyles. This is due to the increasing incidences of non-communicable diseases.
Initiatives on tackling food insecurity among global emerging economies are being focused on enriching native staple foods with locally available nutritious underutilized crops. The objective of this study was to optimize protein content and dietary fibre in rice (Oryza sativa) flour using Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and Bamboo shoots (Yushania alpina).
Entomophagy, consumption of insects, is an age old practice with more than 2100 insect species categorized as edible and relished by more than 2 billion people globally. Despite having been a common practice in Africa, Asia and Latin America, entomophagy has only recently gained more attention in the wake of looming food scarcity due to the effects of climate change on agricultural productivity
Fermented foods have been associated with probiotic bacteria hence, are considered as functional foods since they provide health beneficial effects to the body. Functional foods are gaining popularity in the world, as people are becoming aware of their eating habits.
Milk proteins are categorized as caseins and whey proteins, based on their differences in solubility at a pH of 4.6, an isoelectric point. Casein and whey proteins constitute approximately 2.6% and 0.7%, respectively, of bovine milk. Casein exists in fresh milk in the form of a “micelle” structure, which is a complex aggregate of proteins (α-, β-, and κ-casein) and colloidal calcium phosphate.
The importance of indigenous chicken has been rising over the years with most organizations recognizing it as an important enterprise for the resource poor farmers. A study was carried out in two model villages in Machakos and Kiambu Counties to evaluate whether a 3 year project on production of KARI-Improved Kienyeji chicken enhanced food and income security.
The study aimed at evaluating growth and egg performances of two synthetic chicken linesKC1 and KC2 developed in KALRO-Naivasha. Body weight was measured on 684 birds every four weeks from hatch to week 20 and subjected to Gompertz-Laird function to model growth curves. Egg production data at group level was recorded from 25 groups (10 birds/group) on weekly basis from age at first egg to 60 weeks of age and subjected to segmented polynomial and persistence models to model laying curves.
This study hypothesized that use of genetic parameters from different studies to evaluate overall genetic and economic gains of livestock breeding programmes could over and under estimate response to selection. This is because genetic parameters are affected by data sample size, environmental conditions and evaluation models. This premise was tested by deterministic simulation of breeding schemes that resemble that used in indigenous chicken in Kenya.
In the Coastal Lowlands of Kenya, small-scale mixed crop-livestock system is the dominant form of agricultural production. Feed quantity and quality are inadequate and rarely meets the nutrient demands of growing heifers and lactating cows especially in the dry seasons. The objective of the study was to determine the chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of some native species forage species in Kwale and Kilifi Counties.
Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) is one of the most important pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and other cereals worldwide. It has been reported to cause up to 95% yield loss when poorly controlled. Therefore, there is need to develop effective Russian Wheat Aphid (RWA) control methods to reduce wheat yield losses. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of variety and insecticide seed dress on RWA population and damage on wheat.
Biological control by use of natural enemies is an emerging eco-friendly pest management method which can provide a sustainable alternative option of controlling pest. However, the conservation of these natural enemies within agricultural production systems is a challenge. Field studies were conducted in smallholder farms in Nakuru County to determine the effect of field margin vegetation in supporting the diversity and abundance of invertebrate taxa.
Beef sector contributes significantly to Kenya’s economy. A large proportion of beef cattle is found in arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) and is the main source of livelihood supplying 80-90% of the total beef consumed in the country. However, resulting from the rising human population coupled with changes in consumer preference, the high demand for beef cannot be met by the country’s supply.
Over the recent years, there has been a change in consumption patterns. As a result, consumers are gearing towards convenience foods. This has led to the rise in demand for ready-to-eat (RTE) foods. Potato has been found to be a preferred crop for ready-to-eat foods, for instance, potato chips and crisps because of its ease of preparation and convenience.
The overuse of fungicides to manage late blight has led to emergence of more aggressive strains raising environmental, economic and health concerns. The objectives of the study were to determine the cost benefit and efficacy of T. asperellum (3 × 106, 7 × 106 and 1 × 106 CFU/mL) seed treatment and Ridomil® (Metalaxyl 4% + Mancozeb 64%) application interval (21, 14 and 7 days interval) in managing late blight on potato tuber and apical cutting seed crop by either peridermal injection or dipping.
Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) has great potential for production under irrigation in various agro-ecological zones in Kenya. The study was designed to identify high yielding soybean genotypes of high quality among released and promising genotypes under overhead irrigation for Kerio Valley of Kenya. The trial was set in a randomized complete block design replicated thrice at Sigor in West Pokot County and Arror in Elgeyo Marakwet County in Kerio Valley, Kenya.
The greatest challenge in the agriculture is to produce more food with little water. The challenge facing tomato farmers in Njoro Sub County is the unfavourable conditions for tomato growth which includes very low rainfall during the dry periods. This therefore needs increasing tomato yield per volume of water used. However, there is limited information on water management practices, or deficit irrigation that would increase tomato crop yield and additionally improve on the tomato quality when drip irrigation is used.
This paper examines the relationship between tobacco growing and food security in Malakisi region in Bumula Sub-county of Bungoma County, with a view of establishing its effect on household food security. Tobacco, being a non-food crop, does not contribute to physical food availability in the household.
Scarcity and costly aquafeeds are a setback to sustainable aquaculture in developing countries. Fishmeal (FM) which is preferred for fish feeds is costly and scarce due to competition from livestock and poultry feed industries. Though use of plant-based ingredients for fish feeds is a strategy to reduce the cost, demand for conventional ingredients such as soy, cottonseed among others, is as high as that of fishmeal
Growth performance of mixed sex and male monosex O. niloticus was done in cages at LwandaDisi beach, Lake Victoria, Kenya. Male monosex fingerlings were sex reversed by feeding newly hatched larvae on feed laced with 17-α-methyl testosterone hormone (MT) for 28 days.
Endometritis is a prevalent disease in postpartum cows resulting in substantial economic losses due to decreases in productivity and profitability of the dairy farms. Therefore, knowledge on effectiveness of management interventions (MIs) towards endometritis are essential to make good decisions on its preventive measures and improve dairy cow’s productivity
Endometritis is a postpartum uterine disease of cows that interrupts reproductive cycles resulting in suboptimal fertility, reduced performance, and profitability of the dairy herd. The objective of the study was to estimate the perceived and observed prevalence of endometritis among zero-grazed dairy cows in smallholder farms in Rwanda.
The development of a system of assessing food waste and loss using nutritional demand from populations, production capacity and food loss has provided unique insight into developing more incisive food policy. As can be seen in Figure 1 there are critical differences and gaps in global protein supply profiles.
Africa has great potential to realize food security, poverty reduction as well as reduce youth unemployment through the agricultural sector. Consequently, many African governments have emphasized the importance of agricultural productivity and competitiveness in achieving the SDG “to create conditions for sustainable, inclusive and sustained economic growth, shared prosperity and decent work for all, taking into account different levels of national development and capacities.”
Kenya’s aquaculture dates back to 1920s and in the 1960s, deliberate efforts to develop the sector were seen through international agencies, bilateral donor programs and the Kenyan government but has experienced slowed growth just like in many other developing countries despite immense water resource and an array of potential aquaculture fish species.
Open-air markets are outlets for most agri-food products. The markets provide convenience and competitive pricing for agricultural products, but more importantly, they play a role in ensuring food availability and accessibility. However, huge amounts of agricultural production and food waste generated at these open-air markets present a health risk to users and surrounding communities, if not managed properly. Proper management of the refuse needs no emphasis.
The United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 2 calls for doubling agricultural productivity of the world’s smallholder farmers. Productivity growth – increasing the output of crops and livestock using fewer resources – is critical for food and nutrition security, rural development, and climate change adaptation.
Credit access is among key determinants to increase level of tea production and income of small scale-farmers in Rwanda and its demand has been increasing with the time. Accessed credit help farmers to meet costs of farm inputs such as fertilizers, seedlings and labour as well.
Pyricularia grisea (anamorph Magnaporthe grisea) is the most destructive fungal pathogen causing blast disease in finger millet (Eleusine coracana) causing significant yield loss ranging from 28-100% and most cultivars grown by farmers are susceptible to the disease.
Endometritis is a prevalent uterine disease in postpartum cows. The disease reduces fertility performance and milk yield, and subsequently, productivity and profitability of dairy farms. The reduction in performance is associated with considerable economic losses on dairy farms.
Endometritis is a postpartum uterine disease of cows occurring between 21st and 90th days postpartum (dpp). The disease may occur in the form of clinical endometritis (CLE) and/or subclinical endometritis (SCLE) and interrupts reproductive cycles resulting in suboptimal fertility, reduced performance and profitability of the dairy herd. The prevalence of endometritis in dairy cows can be as great as 89.0% in some herds between 21 and 90 dpp.
Low aphids' infestation field margin vegetation plot attributed to diversity (Karani, 2017)
Legumes are among important dietary food crops providing most essential nutrients (Malaguti et al., 2014).
Presence of spatial and temporal diverse vegetation plays an important role in enhancing invertebrate taxa in agricultural ecosystems. Re-search findings have shown that agricultural intensification reduces and disrupts invertebrate taxa like the natural enemies responsive to natural pest regulation and crop pollination.
Dolichos bean (Lablab purpureus L.) is locally known as ‘Njahi’. It is underutilized crop and less cultivated. It’s a potential legume for sustainable agriculture in dryland ecosystems.
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Even though quality of seed is a major yield determinant in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production and global food security, inadequate availability of and access to high quality (certified) seed is a major challenge to potato producers in Sub-Saharan Africa.
This paper examines factors influencing the choice of response strategies and the actual strategies smallholder farmers use to respond to the effects of climate variability in transitional climatic zones of Africa, specifically Laikipia West Sub-County in Kenya.
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a promising food security crop due to its ability to tolerate drought. A literature review was carried out with an aim of highlighting strategies that sorghum farmers could adopt in the wake of changing climate for improved crop production and livelihoods.
The use of poor quality potato seeds as well as low soil fertility majorly limit potato production in Kenya. The objective of the study was to determine effect of phosphorus rates on growth, yield and phosphorus use efficiency of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) varieties propagated from rooted apical cuttings.