Natural Resources & Climate Change (20)
Papers preferred under this subtheme would be those discussing research outputs, innovations or transformative actions that Enhance Natural Resource-use Efficiency and Conservation to build Resilience; Management of Natural Resources and Tourism; Environmental Sustainability and Green Development; Disasters and Natural Hazards; Natural Resource Use Conflict Management; Climate Change and Variability and Energy Solutions and Innovations in Waste Management.
The sustainability of eco concrete blocks industries is imperative to the well-being of our planet and to human development. However, the production of conventional cement, an essential constituent of eco concrete blocks leads to the release of a significant amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Conventional cement is not an environmentally friendly material due to the fact that its manufacture creates greenhouse gas emissions and leads to reduced supply of good-quality limestone and clay. The most energy-intensive stage of conventional cement production is during clinker production. It accounts for all but about 10% of the energy use and nearly all of the greenhouse gases produced by cement production.
Prospects of Willingness to Pay for Improved Water Provision Ecosystem Services in Kapingazi Catchment, Embu County, KenyaWritten by B. K. Ireri1, P. M. Makenzi1, S. M. Makindi2, P. A. Minang3 and J.M. Mironga4
Ecosystem services are biological foundations essential to economic prosperity and development of human beings for example water provision. However, when ecosystems are exploited for human sustenance, they affect water provision intensively. Kapingazi catchment provides various ecosystem services mainly water provision to downstream users including national hydroelectric power stations that contribute to 52.1% of hydro-electric power of Kenya's electricity.
Factors Influencing the Performance of Improved Pastures: A Case of Lake Bogoria Production Landscape, KenyaWritten by 1W.N. Nyamao, G. M. Ogendi1,2 and S. Kasitet2
Internationally, Lake Bogoria Production Landscape (LBPL) is important for wildlife species, biodiversity content and livestock feeds. However, it is at risk from degradation arising from unsustainable exploitation resources due to overstocking and inadequate natural pasture. Information on pasture species, places of planting and production capacity are well documented.
Prediction of Infiltration Rate in Different Land Use Types Using Modified Horton Equations in Upper Njoro River CatchmentWritten by L. Amisi*, R. M. Wambua and P. M. Kundu
Infiltration rate is a fundamental parameter in understanding a wide range of soil functions. The determination of the infiltration rate in the field usually requires a lot of time. Horton's equation is a viable option when measuring ground infiltration rates or volumes since it provides a good fit to data. However it is cumbersome in practice since it contains three constants that must be evaluated experimentally.
Does the Removal of Copper Leaf (Acalypha fruticosa) Influence Plant Species Diversity and Abundance? A Case of Chemeron, Baringo County, KenyaWritten by G. M., Ogendi*1,2, T.W. Njoroge1, S. M.Morara1 and R. N. Ondieki2
Studies on invasive plant species have gained prominence owing to their potential to significantly alter plant species community composition and structure thereby negatively impacting on ecosystem services. The effects may include a reduction in the abundance of palatable plant species that constitute important forage for livestock, and medicines for the local communities.
Opportunities for Practice Change in Climate Change Adaptation in Smallholder Dairy Farmers in Nandi County, KenyaWritten by J. Owino
Increase in population is driving increase in agricultural production and this is majorly experienced with smallholder farmers who are always engaging in diverse agricultural practices. This paper analyses smallholder dairy farmers farm utilization and relates this utilisation to constraints affecting smallholder dairy farmers capacity to improve manure management. Improved manure management would be useful for nutrient retention and minimizing GHG emissions.
Semi-arid woodlands are important and critical habitats that provide breeding and feeding grounds for a variety of bird species, some of which are endangered or threatened with extinction. Habitat type and size influences abundance and diversity of birds globally and particularly in developing countries that are characterized by rapid human population growth and haphazard urban, agricultural and industrial development.
Nyiragongo volcano is the most active of the Virunga mountains located in the Western part of the Eastern Africa Rift system. From the historical volcanic records, two recent eruptions January 10, 1977 and January 17, 2002 impacted heavily the environment where soil, forests, drainage system, settlement, farming and livestock were affected.
The impact of climate change on natural resources has necessitated the need to adapt potato farming to increase farmers’ resilience against climate change in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Production of Potato (Solanum tuberosum. L) has been declining over the years in SSA due to climate change and variability. This has resulted to low food supply and low income among smallholder farmers exacerbating levels of food and nutrition insecurity, and poverty. For instance, in 2017, International Potato Center reported a tremendous reduction in potato yields by 56% due to reduced rainfall. The study used data from 384 randomly selected potato farmers from Meru County through field survey.
Ideal Hardening off Watering Interval of East African Greenheart (Warburgiau gandensis), Nursery Seedlings in East Mau Watershed, Njoro, KenyaWritten by S. K. Inoti
Water is becoming an increasingly a scarce resource in most areas but yet essential in establishing nursery seedlings. This calls for the effective and efficient use of this important resource. Hardening off of nursery seedlings through reduction of watering regime is necessary before transplanting seedlings to the field. This leads to better survival yet the interval of watering is not well established and this might vary with species and locality
Climate Change Shocks Sensitivity Index of Smallholder Farmers Engaged in Farming and Non Farming Activities in Kinakoba Ward, Tana River County, KenyaWritten by P. G. Ndegwa*, A. W. Wamukota and A. H. Ong’ayo
Understanding the future of smallholder farmers of Kinakomba Ward in Tana River is critical to the design and development of policies. One of the major concerns is establishing how sensitive these farmers are to climate change shocks
Visitor’s Perceptions towards the Causes of Seasonality in the Kenyan Tourism Industry: A Case of Nairobi National Park, KenyaWritten by D. Kambaga1* and M. Omare2
Seasonality presents a number of issues that require special attention and strategies. In particular, seasonality affects the number of tourists to a region and therefore may threaten the viability of tourism enterprises and regions whether severely or mildly.
Provisioning of Water Ecosystem Services in Kapingazi Catchment, Embu County, Kenya. What are the Anthropogenic Activities Impacting on their Supply within the Catchment?Written by B. K. Ireri1, P. M. Makenzi1, S. M. Makindi2, P. A. Minang3 and J.M. Mironga4
Ecosystems provide valuable ecosystem services which are the foundation of man's sustainable development such as water provision. However, when humans exploit ecosystems in providing for their own sustenance, they also affect ecosystem services intensively and consequently degrade the environment, endangering man's survival and development.
Gender equity and women’s empowerment are prerequisites to effective conservation, climate action and meeting the Sustainable Development Goals. In view of its ecological, social and economic value, water is an important renewable natural resource.