Displaying items by tag: euConferences
POSTER: This study hypothesized that use of genetic parameters from different studies to evaluate overall genetic and economic gains of livestock breeding programmes could over and under estimate response to selection. This is because genetic parameters are affected by data sample size, environmental conditions and evaluation models.
POSTER: Credit access is among key determinants to increase level of tea production and income of small scale-farmers in Rwanda and its demand has been increasing with the time. Accessed credit help farmers to meet costs of farm inputs such as fertilizers, seedlings and labour as well. Factors to access credit have been discussed in various studies, and despite the fact that credit seekers obtain credits only when they are eligible by complying with the requirements such as the interest rate to pay, tea farm size and collateral of the lending institutions.
POSTER: Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) is one of the most important pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and other cereals worldwide. It has been reported to cause up to 95% yield loss when poorly controlled. Therefore, there is need to develop effective Russian Wheat Aphid (RWA) control methods to reduce wheat yield losses. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of variety and insecticide seed dress on RWA population and damage on wheat.
Key among government strategies to promote efficient and participatory water management in Kenya is through empowering local communities to manage water resources through Water Resource Users’ Associations (WRUAs) which is a collective action initiative.
The increasing use of different sizes of agricultural machines have led to amplified levels of soil compaction. Knowledge on the dynamics of different soil properties as a result of wheel traffic is crucial for formulation and adoption of proper soil and water conservation methods for improved crop production with increasing population.
Cassava is grown mostly for its tubers while the leaves are considered a byproduct. Cassava leaves constitute a very significant source of dietary protein, minerals and vitamins. However, they contain antinutrients and cyanide, notably the linamarin, which pose the risk of intoxication to the consumers when the leaves are not processed properly.
In Sub Sahara Africa, food contamination continues to wreak havoc. In this region, ready-to-eat foods are majorly sold by street food vendors where hygiene becomes a major challenge given the inadequate supply of portable water. Large numbers of unlicensed vendors operating their businesses in hard to reach areas, mostly after-work hours, thwart the efforts by the public health inspectors to ensure safe food for the public.
Ready–To-Eat (RTE) meat products are consumed in the same state as it is sold without further preparation to ensure safety to the consumer. These foods normally include ingredients that may or may not be cooked and some are regarded as potentially hazardous therefore can support proliferation of food pathogens and should be kept at certain temperatures to reduce the growth of pathogens that may be present in the food.
This study aims to examine the effect of the one-acre model on maize productivity in Kimilili Sub-County, Kenya. One acre fund is a non-governmental organization operating in western Kenya offering comprehensive credit-in-kind bundle of seeds, fertilizer, training and market facilitation.
Green leafy vegetables’ self-provisioning is an informal means of vegetables production with the major part of it used for own-consumption. In Kenya, self-provisioning is taking place in both urban and peri-urban areas. However, the motives of engaging in this practice, and of the choice of commodities to focus in, are not clear. Existing studies have provided mixed reasons for engaging in self-provisioning such as; economic hardships, improving household food security, source of employment, cultural reasons or leisure/hobby.
Declining farm size as a result of continuing land fragmentation as population increases is a major policy concern in Sub-Saharan Africa in general and Kenya in particular. The government efforts to address land fragmentation in Kenya have been hampered by lack of adequate and reliable research-based information to guide policy formulation on land management and its impact on food security.
Cape gooseberry, Physalis peruviana, is a nutritionally important underutilized fruit with great therapeutic potential attributed to its rich macro and micronutrient content. It is laden with anti-inflammatory phytochemicals that contribute to its medicinal value as an antidiabetic, anticancer, and anti-hypertensive agent. P. peruviana is promoted for inclusion in human diets for a disease-free healthy life and general well-being.
Chia seed (Salvia hispanica) has been known for over 5,500 years and was used as a food for the Mayas and Aztec tribes. It is now fast gaining popularity worldwide due to the health benefits associated with it at a time where there is an increasing desire to change to healthier lifestyles. This is due to the increasing incidences of non-communicable diseases.
Initiatives on tackling food insecurity among global emerging economies are being focused on enriching native staple foods with locally available nutritious underutilized crops. The objective of this study was to optimize protein content and dietary fibre in rice (Oryza sativa) flour using Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and Bamboo shoots (Yushania alpina).
Entomophagy, consumption of insects, is an age old practice with more than 2100 insect species categorized as edible and relished by more than 2 billion people globally. Despite having been a common practice in Africa, Asia and Latin America, entomophagy has only recently gained more attention in the wake of looming food scarcity due to the effects of climate change on agricultural productivity
Fermented foods have been associated with probiotic bacteria hence, are considered as functional foods since they provide health beneficial effects to the body. Functional foods are gaining popularity in the world, as people are becoming aware of their eating habits.
Milk proteins are categorized as caseins and whey proteins, based on their differences in solubility at a pH of 4.6, an isoelectric point. Casein and whey proteins constitute approximately 2.6% and 0.7%, respectively, of bovine milk. Casein exists in fresh milk in the form of a “micelle” structure, which is a complex aggregate of proteins (α-, β-, and κ-casein) and colloidal calcium phosphate.
The importance of indigenous chicken has been rising over the years with most organizations recognizing it as an important enterprise for the resource poor farmers. A study was carried out in two model villages in Machakos and Kiambu Counties to evaluate whether a 3 year project on production of KARI-Improved Kienyeji chicken enhanced food and income security.
The study aimed at evaluating growth and egg performances of two synthetic chicken linesKC1 and KC2 developed in KALRO-Naivasha. Body weight was measured on 684 birds every four weeks from hatch to week 20 and subjected to Gompertz-Laird function to model growth curves. Egg production data at group level was recorded from 25 groups (10 birds/group) on weekly basis from age at first egg to 60 weeks of age and subjected to segmented polynomial and persistence models to model laying curves.
This study hypothesized that use of genetic parameters from different studies to evaluate overall genetic and economic gains of livestock breeding programmes could over and under estimate response to selection. This is because genetic parameters are affected by data sample size, environmental conditions and evaluation models. This premise was tested by deterministic simulation of breeding schemes that resemble that used in indigenous chicken in Kenya.
In the Coastal Lowlands of Kenya, small-scale mixed crop-livestock system is the dominant form of agricultural production. Feed quantity and quality are inadequate and rarely meets the nutrient demands of growing heifers and lactating cows especially in the dry seasons. The objective of the study was to determine the chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of some native species forage species in Kwale and Kilifi Counties.
Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) is one of the most important pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and other cereals worldwide. It has been reported to cause up to 95% yield loss when poorly controlled. Therefore, there is need to develop effective Russian Wheat Aphid (RWA) control methods to reduce wheat yield losses. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of variety and insecticide seed dress on RWA population and damage on wheat.
Biological control by use of natural enemies is an emerging eco-friendly pest management method which can provide a sustainable alternative option of controlling pest. However, the conservation of these natural enemies within agricultural production systems is a challenge. Field studies were conducted in smallholder farms in Nakuru County to determine the effect of field margin vegetation in supporting the diversity and abundance of invertebrate taxa.
Beef sector contributes significantly to Kenya’s economy. A large proportion of beef cattle is found in arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) and is the main source of livelihood supplying 80-90% of the total beef consumed in the country. However, resulting from the rising human population coupled with changes in consumer preference, the high demand for beef cannot be met by the country’s supply.
Over the recent years, there has been a change in consumption patterns. As a result, consumers are gearing towards convenience foods. This has led to the rise in demand for ready-to-eat (RTE) foods. Potato has been found to be a preferred crop for ready-to-eat foods, for instance, potato chips and crisps because of its ease of preparation and convenience.
The overuse of fungicides to manage late blight has led to emergence of more aggressive strains raising environmental, economic and health concerns. The objectives of the study were to determine the cost benefit and efficacy of T. asperellum (3 × 106, 7 × 106 and 1 × 106 CFU/mL) seed treatment and Ridomil® (Metalaxyl 4% + Mancozeb 64%) application interval (21, 14 and 7 days interval) in managing late blight on potato tuber and apical cutting seed crop by either peridermal injection or dipping.
Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) has great potential for production under irrigation in various agro-ecological zones in Kenya. The study was designed to identify high yielding soybean genotypes of high quality among released and promising genotypes under overhead irrigation for Kerio Valley of Kenya. The trial was set in a randomized complete block design replicated thrice at Sigor in West Pokot County and Arror in Elgeyo Marakwet County in Kerio Valley, Kenya.
The greatest challenge in the agriculture is to produce more food with little water. The challenge facing tomato farmers in Njoro Sub County is the unfavourable conditions for tomato growth which includes very low rainfall during the dry periods. This therefore needs increasing tomato yield per volume of water used. However, there is limited information on water management practices, or deficit irrigation that would increase tomato crop yield and additionally improve on the tomato quality when drip irrigation is used.
The 2010 political revolutions in parts of the Middle East and North Africa also referred to as ‘the Arab Spring’ emerged into contemporary political history as a process in which ordinary citizens through their organised groups exerted decisive influence which brought down powerful governments. Studies on the impact of citizens’ influence on governments have, however, mostly associated it with democratisation, where it is mostly reduced to electioneering processes.
Since the emergence of al-Shabaab in 2006, radicalization has bought anxiety to communities in the Horn of Africa. Focusing on Kenya, the paper examines and evaluates how governments’ security tactics have countered violent extremism. With the emphasis that countering violent extremism needs inclusive and strategic policies such as the philosophy of community policing, the paper addresses how community policing in Kenya adopts inclusive policies.
In analyzing the evolution of Kenyan foreign policy from the period of 1963 to 2020, I consider the contribution of psychology and sociology into security studies. Comparing different cases such as the ‘Shifta wars,’ ‘Wagalla massacre,’ Anti-Terror legislation, International Criminal Court (ICC) cases, ‘Operation Linda Nchi’ (OLN), and Maritime Boundary Dispute (MBD) including their consequences.
The nature and extent of gender inequality and the conditions for farmer empowerment vary across countries, communities and regions. Although the status of women in agriculture has received extensive attention in the literature in recent decades, a research gap persists regarding the state of gender disparity in Farmers Field Schools (FFS) in Kilifi Sub-County.
Collective action through formation of commercial villages is one of the interventions adopted by Meru County government to enable smallholders farmers mitigate the market imperfections and contend with the recent transformations in agri-product markets. Despite this, most of the commercial villages are dysfunctional due to free riding and lack of member commitment regarding participation in the group and its operations. This study therefore, analyzed the determinants of decision to join commercial village, participation and intensity of participation in commercial village activities, in Buuri Sub-County, Meru County.
Microfinance institution contributes significantly to economic development and the financial inclusion of the underprivileged population. However, financial sustainability of these institutions remains a major challenge largely because of the low deposits and high demand for micro loans. Though previous studies have shown that financial leverage influences financial sustainability of microfinance institutions, the findings are inconclusive and debatable.
Kenya has for the last decade attempted to revitalize the structures for implementation of social protection programs through the formulation and implementation of the Kenyan Social Protection Policy, 2011. The policy was developed to provide a broader framework for design and execution of projects and programs that could address the needs of vulnerable groups such as, elderly persons, persons with disability and orphans and vulnerable children (OVCs).
The current global pandemic has not only changed the lives of people globally but also caused language change. Seemingly, there is a parallel language contagion to the pandemic given that some dictionaries have already made unscheduled updates in response to coronavirus-related vocabulary. Since previous research has reported pandemics and epidemics to have given rise to certain neologisms, the study aimed at exploring neologisms related to COVID-19 using data from digital platforms in Kenya.
Fasihi imepitia mabadiliko kadha katika makuzi yake. Kuanzia fasihi simulizi [hadithi, semi, maigizo, ushairi simulizi, mazungumzo nangomezi], ikaja fasihi andishi [riwaya, tamthilia, hadithi fupi na ushairi andishi] na kasha fasihi ya watoto na vijana inayohusisha michoro.
Northern Nigeria has a long history of been the center of Islamic revivalism since the establishment of the Sokoto Caliphate (1804-1808). The misconception and deception of some of the Muslim religious organizations in the name of Islam have today became a theater of religious conservatism.
In Ghana, the role of taboo in solving contemporary environmental issues is an ongoing debate with some people taking the conservationist stance while others reckon that traditional beliefs and practices play a significant and positive role in ensuring that the environment is in good shape for future generations. In the Cape Coast Metropolis, taboos are part of the daily activities of its indigenes.
Payment of Dowry as a condition for legitimization of marriage is a common practice in many societies and is central to the ways in which the institution of marriage is understood and inserted in diverse African traditions. In most African societies, it is taken for granted that the groom has a responsibility to pay, usually livestock, to the bridal family in return for her hand in marriage.
Human African trypanosomiasis is a fatal vector-borne parasitic neglected tropical disease affecting millions of people in poorly developed regions of sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by two subspecies of protozoan parasites: Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (Tbr) and T. b. gambiense.
The sustainability of eco concrete blocks industries is imperative to the well-being of our planet and to human development. However, the production of conventional cement, an essential constituent of eco concrete blocks leads to the release of a significant amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Conventional cement is not an environmentally friendly material due to the fact that its manufacture creates greenhouse gas emissions and leads to reduced supply of good-quality limestone and clay. The most energy-intensive stage of conventional cement production is during clinker production. It accounts for all but about 10% of the energy use and nearly all of the greenhouse gases produced by cement production.
Ecosystem services are biological foundations essential to economic prosperity and development of human beings for example water provision. However, when ecosystems are exploited for human sustenance, they affect water provision intensively. Kapingazi catchment provides various ecosystem services mainly water provision to downstream users including national hydroelectric power stations that contribute to 52.1% of hydro-electric power of Kenya's electricity.
Internationally, Lake Bogoria Production Landscape (LBPL) is important for wildlife species, biodiversity content and livestock feeds. However, it is at risk from degradation arising from unsustainable exploitation resources due to overstocking and inadequate natural pasture. Information on pasture species, places of planting and production capacity are well documented.
Infiltration rate is a fundamental parameter in understanding a wide range of soil functions. The determination of the infiltration rate in the field usually requires a lot of time. Horton's equation is a viable option when measuring ground infiltration rates or volumes since it provides a good fit to data. However it is cumbersome in practice since it contains three constants that must be evaluated experimentally.
Studies on invasive plant species have gained prominence owing to their potential to significantly alter plant species community composition and structure thereby negatively impacting on ecosystem services. The effects may include a reduction in the abundance of palatable plant species that constitute important forage for livestock, and medicines for the local communities.
Increase in population is driving increase in agricultural production and this is majorly experienced with smallholder farmers who are always engaging in diverse agricultural practices. This paper analyses smallholder dairy farmers farm utilization and relates this utilisation to constraints affecting smallholder dairy farmers capacity to improve manure management. Improved manure management would be useful for nutrient retention and minimizing GHG emissions.
Semi-arid woodlands are important and critical habitats that provide breeding and feeding grounds for a variety of bird species, some of which are endangered or threatened with extinction. Habitat type and size influences abundance and diversity of birds globally and particularly in developing countries that are characterized by rapid human population growth and haphazard urban, agricultural and industrial development.
Nyiragongo volcano is the most active of the Virunga mountains located in the Western part of the Eastern Africa Rift system. From the historical volcanic records, two recent eruptions January 10, 1977 and January 17, 2002 impacted heavily the environment where soil, forests, drainage system, settlement, farming and livestock were affected.
The impact of climate change on natural resources has necessitated the need to adapt potato farming to increase farmers’ resilience against climate change in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Production of Potato (Solanum tuberosum. L) has been declining over the years in SSA due to climate change and variability. This has resulted to low food supply and low income among smallholder farmers exacerbating levels of food and nutrition insecurity, and poverty. For instance, in 2017, International Potato Center reported a tremendous reduction in potato yields by 56% due to reduced rainfall. The study used data from 384 randomly selected potato farmers from Meru County through field survey.