Displaying items by tag: Natural Resources & Climate Change

The sustainability of eco concrete blocks industries is imperative to the well-being of our planet and to human development. However, the production of conventional cement, an essential constituent of eco concrete blocks leads to the release of a significant amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Conventional cement is not an environmentally friendly material due to the fact that its manufacture creates greenhouse gas emissions and leads to reduced supply of good-quality limestone and clay. The most energy-intensive stage of conventional cement production is during clinker production. It accounts for all but about 10% of the energy use and nearly all of the greenhouse gases produced by cement production.

Ecosystem services are biological foundations essential to economic prosperity and development of human beings for example water provision. However, when ecosystems are exploited for human sustenance, they affect water provision intensively. Kapingazi catchment provides various ecosystem services mainly water provision to downstream users including national hydroelectric power stations that contribute to 52.1% of hydro-electric power of Kenya's electricity.

Internationally, Lake Bogoria Production Landscape (LBPL) is important for wildlife species, biodiversity content and livestock feeds. However, it is at risk from degradation arising from unsustainable exploitation resources due to overstocking and inadequate natural pasture. Information on pasture species, places of planting and production capacity are well documented.

Infiltration rate is a fundamental parameter in understanding a wide range of soil functions. The determination of the infiltration rate in the field usually requires a lot of time. Horton's equation is a viable option when measuring ground infiltration rates or volumes since it provides a good fit to data. However it is cumbersome in practice since it contains three constants that must be evaluated experimentally.

Studies on invasive plant species have gained prominence owing to their potential to significantly alter plant species community composition and structure thereby negatively impacting on ecosystem services. The effects may include a reduction in the abundance of palatable plant species that constitute important forage for livestock, and medicines for the local communities.

Increase in population is driving increase in agricultural production and this is majorly experienced with smallholder farmers who are always engaging in diverse agricultural practices. This paper analyses smallholder dairy farmers farm utilization and relates this utilisation to constraints affecting smallholder dairy farmers capacity to improve manure management. Improved manure management would be useful for nutrient retention and minimizing GHG emissions. 

Semi-arid woodlands are important and critical habitats that provide breeding and feeding grounds for a variety of bird species, some of which are endangered or threatened with extinction. Habitat type and size influences abundance and diversity of birds globally and particularly in developing countries that are characterized by rapid human population growth and haphazard urban, agricultural and industrial development.

Nyiragongo volcano is the most active of the Virunga mountains located in the Western part of the Eastern Africa Rift system.  From the historical volcanic records, two recent eruptions January 10, 1977 and January 17, 2002 impacted heavily the environment where soil, forests, drainage system, settlement, farming and livestock were affected.

The impact of climate change on natural resources has necessitated the need to adapt potato farming to increase farmers’ resilience against climate change in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Production of Potato (Solanum tuberosum. L) has been declining over the years in SSA due to climate change and variability. This has resulted to low food supply and low income among smallholder farmers exacerbating levels of food and nutrition insecurity, and poverty. For instance, in 2017, International Potato Center reported a tremendous reduction in potato yields by 56% due to reduced rainfall.  The study used data from 384 randomly selected potato farmers from Meru County through field survey.

Water is becoming an increasingly a scarce resource in most areas but yet essential in establishing nursery seedlings. This calls for the effective and efficient use of this important resource. Hardening off of nursery seedlings through reduction of watering regime is necessary before transplanting seedlings to the field. This leads to better survival yet the interval of watering is not well established and this might vary with species and locality

Understanding the future of smallholder farmers of Kinakomba Ward in Tana River is critical to the design and development of policies. One of the major concerns is establishing how sensitive these farmers are to climate change shocks

Seasonality presents a number of issues that require special attention and strategies. In particular, seasonality affects the number of tourists to a region and therefore may threaten the viability of tourism enterprises and regions whether severely or mildly.

Ecosystems provide valuable ecosystem services which are the foundation of man's sustainable development such as water provision. However, when humans exploit ecosystems in providing for their own sustenance, they also affect ecosystem services intensively and consequently degrade the environment, endangering man's survival and development.

Gender equity and women’s empowerment are prerequisites to effective conservation, climate action and meeting the Sustainable Development Goals. In view of its ecological, social and economic value, water is an important renewable natural resource.

The effects of climate variability have heavily affected Agro pastoralists in most parts of the Sub-Saharan. This is caused by a combination of factors, which include; widespread poverty, dependence on natural resources, over dependence on rain fed agriculture, conflicts and negligence from the government (Atinkut and Mebrat, 2016). 

Aquaculture development in Kenya and elsewhere, is frequently hampered by lack of suitable, affordable and sustainable feed sources. This is especially so for mariculture, where cultured organisms are commonly at higher trophic levels, requiring protein and lipiddense formulations.

Over 8 million households in Kenya rely on wood and 1.3 million on charcoal while only 3% own electric cooking appliances. The impact of solid biomass fuel for cooking on households around the world is increasingly evident. Kenya is one of the most vulnerable countries and acutely experiencing the manifestations of the problem

The serene, biodiverse and stunning Indian Ocean seascapes are widely appreciated, but inherent dangers, remain largely ignored or the stuff of folklore and fiction. A cross-sectional survey of dangerous marine organism knowledge and management among typical seascape users along the Kenyan coast, was undertaken among fishing communities at the North and South coast. Demographics, coupled with knowledge and management of marine biohazards, were obtained from over 112 respondents (fishers, gleaners, boatmen, beach boys) in March 2019

Primates are known to maintain forest plant population and regeneration through seed dispersal. They swallow and defecate and or spit large quantities of viable seeds away from the parent plant. This study was conducted in Gede Ruins forest, a coastal dry forest of Kenya to establish the contribution of Sykes monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis albogularis in maintenance of community structure and species composition through seed dispersal.

There has been increased interest over the last decades on community based management of natural resources (CBMNR) and their relation to environmental sustainability. Insufficient studies dedicated in Kenya to understand pastoral communities’ management is striking, considering the importance of communal management for pastoralism and of pastoralism in Kenya.

Can Pastoral Communities Offer Sustainable Ecological Management Solutions? The case of Mwanda-Marungu Pastoral Commons in Taita Hills, Kenya

The paper investigated the influence of languages (national and official) on learner’s academic achievement as recommended by the new framework law of education n° 14/004 of 11thFebruary,2014.A population of 187 learners from six forms of Nile Basin Primary School (NBPS), were involved in the study, where a test in language subjects (French and Kiswahili),