Food security (48)
Papers preferred under this subtheme would be those discussing research outputs, innovations or transformative actions that inform opportunities and challenges in attaining the zero hunger goal targets of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal no. 2. These include Increasing Agricultural Productivity and Incomes, Sustainable Animal and Crop Production Systems; Sustainable Utilization of Genetic Diversity, Safe and Nutritious Foods; Malnutrition Interventions; Food Science and Technology; Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness.
The importance of indigenous chicken has been rising over the years with most organizations recognizing it as an important enterprise for the resource poor farmers. A study was carried out in two model villages in Machakos and Kiambu Counties to evaluate whether a 3 year project on production of KARI-Improved Kienyeji chicken enhanced food and income security.
The study aimed at evaluating growth and egg performances of two synthetic chicken linesKC1 and KC2 developed in KALRO-Naivasha. Body weight was measured on 684 birds every four weeks from hatch to week 20 and subjected to Gompertz-Laird function to model growth curves. Egg production data at group level was recorded from 25 groups (10 birds/group) on weekly basis from age at first egg to 60 weeks of age and subjected to segmented polynomial and persistence models to model laying curves.
Use of Pooled Genetic Parameters Minimizes Biasness when Evaluating Response to Selection in Indigenous Chicken Breeding ProgramsWritten by C.W. Ndung’u*, T. K. Muasya, and T. O. Okeno
This study hypothesized that use of genetic parameters from different studies to evaluate overall genetic and economic gains of livestock breeding programmes could over and under estimate response to selection. This is because genetic parameters are affected by data sample size, environmental conditions and evaluation models. This premise was tested by deterministic simulation of breeding schemes that resemble that used in indigenous chicken in Kenya.
In the Coastal Lowlands of Kenya, small-scale mixed crop-livestock system is the dominant form of agricultural production. Feed quantity and quality are inadequate and rarely meets the nutrient demands of growing heifers and lactating cows especially in the dry seasons. The objective of the study was to determine the chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of some native species forage species in Kwale and Kilifi Counties.
Effect of Variety and Insecticide Seed-Dress on Russian Wheat Aphid (Diuraphis noxia) Population, Damage and Yield of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)Written by M. W. Karue*, A. W. Kamau and S. O. Owuoche
Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) is one of the most important pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and other cereals worldwide. It has been reported to cause up to 95% yield loss when poorly controlled. Therefore, there is need to develop effective Russian Wheat Aphid (RWA) control methods to reduce wheat yield losses. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of variety and insecticide seed dress on RWA population and damage on wheat.
Diversity and Abundance of Invertebrate Taxa in Smallholder Farms in Nakuru County: Effect of Dolichos-Based Cropping System and Field Margin VegetationWritten by J. N. Obanyi1, 2, J. O. Ogendo2*, R. M.S. Mulwa2, J. G. Nyaanga2, E. K. Cheruiyot2 and P. K. Bett3
Biological control by use of natural enemies is an emerging eco-friendly pest management method which can provide a sustainable alternative option of controlling pest. However, the conservation of these natural enemies within agricultural production systems is a challenge. Field studies were conducted in smallholder farms in Nakuru County to determine the effect of field margin vegetation in supporting the diversity and abundance of invertebrate taxa.
Beef sector contributes significantly to Kenya’s economy. A large proportion of beef cattle is found in arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) and is the main source of livelihood supplying 80-90% of the total beef consumed in the country. However, resulting from the rising human population coupled with changes in consumer preference, the high demand for beef cannot be met by the country’s supply.
Effect of Processing Methods and Variety on Nutritional Quality of Ready-To-Eat Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) ProductsWritten by M. W. Muthee*, J. O. Anyango and J. W. Matofari
Over the recent years, there has been a change in consumption patterns. As a result, consumers are gearing towards convenience foods. This has led to the rise in demand for ready-to-eat (RTE) foods. Potato has been found to be a preferred crop for ready-to-eat foods, for instance, potato chips and crisps because of its ease of preparation and convenience.
Efficacy of Trichoderma asperellum Seed Treatment and Ridomil® Application Regime in Managing Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans) on Potato (Solanum tuberosum)Written by J. M. Kilonzi,1* J.J. Mafurah2 and M.WNyongesa3
The overuse of fungicides to manage late blight has led to emergence of more aggressive strains raising environmental, economic and health concerns. The objectives of the study were to determine the cost benefit and efficacy of T. asperellum (3 × 106, 7 × 106 and 1 × 106 CFU/mL) seed treatment and Ridomil® (Metalaxyl 4% + Mancozeb 64%) application interval (21, 14 and 7 days interval) in managing late blight on potato tuber and apical cutting seed crop by either peridermal injection or dipping.
Exploring the Potential of Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merill)] Production under Overhead Irrigation in Kerio Valley, KenyaWritten by J.N. Njoroge1*, J. K. B. Kiplagat2 and F. C. Kipkech2
Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) has great potential for production under irrigation in various agro-ecological zones in Kenya. The study was designed to identify high yielding soybean genotypes of high quality among released and promising genotypes under overhead irrigation for Kerio Valley of Kenya. The trial was set in a randomized complete block design replicated thrice at Sigor in West Pokot County and Arror in Elgeyo Marakwet County in Kerio Valley, Kenya.
Evaluation of Tomato Water Productivity under the Effect of Deficit Drip Irrigation and Mulching in Njoro Sub County, NakuruWritten by H. J. Sang1*, R. M Wambua1 and J. M. Raude2
The greatest challenge in the agriculture is to produce more food with little water. The challenge facing tomato farmers in Njoro Sub County is the unfavourable conditions for tomato growth which includes very low rainfall during the dry periods. This therefore needs increasing tomato yield per volume of water used. However, there is limited information on water management practices, or deficit irrigation that would increase tomato crop yield and additionally improve on the tomato quality when drip irrigation is used.
This paper examines the relationship between tobacco growing and food security in Malakisi region in Bumula Sub-county of Bungoma County, with a view of establishing its effect on household food security. Tobacco, being a non-food crop, does not contribute to physical food availability in the household.
Effect of Replacing Fish Meal with Prosopis juliflora Seed Meal on Growth Performance of Clarias gariepinus FingerlingsWritten by R. Ondiba1*, E. Kembenya1, K. Obiero1, Z. Gichana2, K. Nyakeya3 and M. Onduma1
Scarcity and costly aquafeeds are a setback to sustainable aquaculture in developing countries. Fishmeal (FM) which is preferred for fish feeds is costly and scarce due to competition from livestock and poultry feed industries. Though use of plant-based ingredients for fish feeds is a strategy to reduce the cost, demand for conventional ingredients such as soy, cottonseed among others, is as high as that of fishmeal
Growth Performance of Mixed Sex and Monosex Male Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Reared in Cages, Lake Victoria, KenyaWritten by E. M. Kembenya1, 2*, R. N. Ondiba1, 2 and M. B. Angima2
Growth performance of mixed sex and male monosex O. niloticus was done in cages at LwandaDisi beach, Lake Victoria, Kenya. Male monosex fingerlings were sex reversed by feeding newly hatched larvae on feed laced with 17-α-methyl testosterone hormone (MT) for 28 days.