Friday, 13 November 2020 13:34

Clean Cooking Energy: Options and Associated Costs

Written by W. B. Kisiangani1, J. Maina3, W. P. Wamalwa2, W. F. Okinda2 and M. Kamau3
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W. B. Kisiangani1, J. Maina3, W. P. Wamalwa2, W. F. Okinda2 and M. Kamau3

1Egerton University, Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Management,

2Egerton University, Department of Engineering, Egerton University, Kenya

3Sustainable Community Development Services, Nakuru, Kenya

*Corresponding Author:


Over 8 million households in Kenya rely on wood and 1.3 million on charcoal while only 3% own electric cooking appliances. The impact of solid biomass fuel for cooking on households around the world is increasingly evident. Kenya is one of the most vulnerable countries and acutely experiencing the manifestations of the problem. Solid biomass has been found to expose the using families to household air pollution contributing to a range of acute chronic illnesses responsible for approximately 4 million premature deaths worldwide and 21,650 deaths in Kenya yearly. Despite these effects, around 80% of the households in Kenya have continued to rely on solid biomass as the primary cooking fuels. To this effect, the study sought to explore the determinants of rural households' willingness to adopt Direct Solar Electric Pressure Cooking unit (DSEPC) in Mbaruk and Mogotio locations, Nakuru County. Systematic random sampling technique was employed to obtain a sample of 516 households. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered through interview schedules with primary cooks and household heads. A bivariate Probit model was employed to examine households’ willingness to pay for DSEPC unit.  The empirical results indicated that the households’ willingness to pay for DSEPC was influenced by the number of schooling years of the household head, gender of the HH, number of children under 5 years, members with health complications related to cooking within a household, and the cost of the current cooking fuel. The majority of the households (81.78%) were willing to pay for the DSEPC. The mostly used fuels were firewood, 50.78% followed by charcoal and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) at 39.15% and 21.71% respectively. Therefore, the study recommends government agencies and other stakeholders to come up with policies that are geared towards development of clean and affordable energy with minimal or no impact on peoples’ health. Based on the cost incurred on traditional fuels, the study further recommends the expansion of DSEPC program beyond the study areas.

Keywords: Bivariate Probit regression, clean cooking, DC pressure cooker, solar electric pressure cooking unit, solid biomass

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