Natural Resources & Climate Change

Natural Resources & Climate Change (20)

Papers preferred under this subtheme would be those discussing research outputs, innovations or transformative actions that Enhance Natural Resource-use Efficiency and Conservation to build Resilience; Management of Natural Resources and Tourism; Environmental Sustainability and Green Development; Disasters and Natural Hazards; Natural Resource Use Conflict Management; Climate Change and Variability and Energy Solutions and Innovations in Waste Management.

The sustainability of eco concrete blocks industries is imperative to the well-being of our planet and to human development. However, the production of conventional cement, an essential constituent of eco concrete blocks leads to the release of a significant amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Conventional cement is not an environmentally friendly material due to the fact that its manufacture creates greenhouse gas emissions and leads to reduced supply of good-quality limestone and clay. The most energy-intensive stage of conventional cement production is during clinker production. It accounts for all but about 10% of the energy use and nearly all of the greenhouse gases produced by cement production.

Ecosystem services are biological foundations essential to economic prosperity and development of human beings for example water provision. However, when ecosystems are exploited for human sustenance, they affect water provision intensively. Kapingazi catchment provides various ecosystem services mainly water provision to downstream users including national hydroelectric power stations that contribute to 52.1% of hydro-electric power of Kenya's electricity.

Internationally, Lake Bogoria Production Landscape (LBPL) is important for wildlife species, biodiversity content and livestock feeds. However, it is at risk from degradation arising from unsustainable exploitation resources due to overstocking and inadequate natural pasture. Information on pasture species, places of planting and production capacity are well documented.

Infiltration rate is a fundamental parameter in understanding a wide range of soil functions. The determination of the infiltration rate in the field usually requires a lot of time. Horton's equation is a viable option when measuring ground infiltration rates or volumes since it provides a good fit to data. However it is cumbersome in practice since it contains three constants that must be evaluated experimentally.

Studies on invasive plant species have gained prominence owing to their potential to significantly alter plant species community composition and structure thereby negatively impacting on ecosystem services. The effects may include a reduction in the abundance of palatable plant species that constitute important forage for livestock, and medicines for the local communities.

Increase in population is driving increase in agricultural production and this is majorly experienced with smallholder farmers who are always engaging in diverse agricultural practices. This paper analyses smallholder dairy farmers farm utilization and relates this utilisation to constraints affecting smallholder dairy farmers capacity to improve manure management. Improved manure management would be useful for nutrient retention and minimizing GHG emissions. 

Semi-arid woodlands are important and critical habitats that provide breeding and feeding grounds for a variety of bird species, some of which are endangered or threatened with extinction. Habitat type and size influences abundance and diversity of birds globally and particularly in developing countries that are characterized by rapid human population growth and haphazard urban, agricultural and industrial development.

Nyiragongo volcano is the most active of the Virunga mountains located in the Western part of the Eastern Africa Rift system.  From the historical volcanic records, two recent eruptions January 10, 1977 and January 17, 2002 impacted heavily the environment where soil, forests, drainage system, settlement, farming and livestock were affected.

The impact of climate change on natural resources has necessitated the need to adapt potato farming to increase farmers’ resilience against climate change in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Production of Potato (Solanum tuberosum. L) has been declining over the years in SSA due to climate change and variability. This has resulted to low food supply and low income among smallholder farmers exacerbating levels of food and nutrition insecurity, and poverty. For instance, in 2017, International Potato Center reported a tremendous reduction in potato yields by 56% due to reduced rainfall.  The study used data from 384 randomly selected potato farmers from Meru County through field survey.

Water is becoming an increasingly a scarce resource in most areas but yet essential in establishing nursery seedlings. This calls for the effective and efficient use of this important resource. Hardening off of nursery seedlings through reduction of watering regime is necessary before transplanting seedlings to the field. This leads to better survival yet the interval of watering is not well established and this might vary with species and locality

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