Geopolitics and Security

Geopolitics and Security (12)

The papers under this sub theme should be contemporary multidisciplinary research that address: dynamics of devolved governance structures, relations between national and devolved governments, corruption, securitization, radicalisation, dangers posed by terrorism, challenges associated with regional integration and grand infrastructure projects,state of civil society and the body politic today, civic freedom and jurisdiction, social and legal justice.

The 2010 political revolutions in parts of the Middle East and North Africa also referred to as ‘the Arab Spring’ emerged into contemporary political history as a process in which ordinary citizens through their organised groups exerted decisive influence which brought down powerful governments. Studies on the impact of citizens’ influence on governments have, however, mostly associated it with democratisation, where it is mostly reduced to electioneering processes.

Since the emergence of al-Shabaab in 2006, radicalization has bought anxiety to communities in the Horn of Africa. Focusing on Kenya, the paper examines and evaluates how governments’ security tactics have countered violent extremism. With the emphasis that countering violent extremism needs inclusive and strategic policies such as the philosophy of community policing, the paper addresses how community policing in Kenya adopts inclusive policies.

In analyzing the evolution of Kenyan foreign policy from the period of 1963 to 2020, I consider the contribution of psychology and sociology into security studies.  Comparing different cases such as the ‘Shifta wars,’ ‘Wagalla massacre,’ Anti-Terror legislation, International Criminal Court (ICC) cases, ‘Operation Linda Nchi’ (OLN), and Maritime Boundary Dispute (MBD) including their consequences.

The nature and extent of gender inequality and the conditions for farmer empowerment vary across countries, communities and regions. Although the status of women in agriculture has received extensive attention in the literature in recent decades, a research gap persists regarding the state of gender disparity in Farmers Field Schools (FFS) in Kilifi Sub-County.

Collective action through formation of commercial villages is one of the interventions adopted by Meru County government to enable smallholders farmers mitigate the market imperfections and contend with the recent transformations in agri-product markets. Despite this, most of the commercial villages are dysfunctional due to free riding and lack of member commitment regarding participation in the group and its operations. This study therefore, analyzed the determinants of decision to join commercial village, participation and intensity of participation in commercial village activities, in Buuri Sub-County, Meru County.

Microfinance institution contributes significantly to economic development and the financial inclusion of the underprivileged population. However, financial sustainability of these institutions remains a major challenge largely because of the low deposits and high demand for micro loans.  Though previous studies have shown that financial leverage influences financial sustainability of microfinance institutions, the findings are inconclusive and debatable. 

Kenya has for the last decade attempted to revitalize the structures for implementation of social protection programs through the formulation and implementation of the Kenyan Social Protection Policy, 2011. The policy was developed to provide a broader framework for design and execution of projects and programs that could address the needs of vulnerable groups such as, elderly persons, persons with disability and orphans and vulnerable children (OVCs).

In today’s world, it is imperative that countries or nations to involve policy experts to be included all through the policy formulation process. Knowledge of policy analysts cannot be underestimated in the 21st century since they have a vast understanding and know how to play a key role in the changes that occur in the recent time and also public problems will always continue to evolve with changes in time and environment surrounding the policy process.

The paper examines and evaluates the multibillion-dollar project of road, railway, airports, and industries signed between Kenya, Ethiopia, and South Sudan – the Lamu Port South Sudan and Ethiopia Transport Corridor (LAPSSET). It identifies how the northern transport corridor will impact Kenya’s relation with her neighbors? A triangulation of Key Informants’ interviews with government and academic documents led to a satisfactory conclusion.

The “Belt and Road Initiative (BRI)” has become a major hallmark of China’s overseas engagement in different regions of Asia, Middle East, Europe and Africa. China claims that the BRI presents an open and inclusive economic development model that emphasizes equality and mutual benefit, inclusiveness and mutual coordination, and win-win cooperation to promote the common development of all countries including China.